It's easy to email photos directly from your camera roll, but many people don't realize that there is an easily accessed options bar in the Mail app that allows users to insert a photo or video. Here's how to use this option bar to email photos directly from the Mail app.
To open the options bar, simply tap and hold the empty content area. When you lift your finger a menu will pop up.
Tap the arrow pointing right to see the option for inserting photos or videos.
Tapping on this option will take you to your camera roll where you can select the image you want to attach.
Note that in order to email attachments like PDFs, you'll need to email them from an app that can open that type of document.